Health Sciences

 

Die moeite werd om te lees oor onderrig in die Fakulteit Gesondheidswetenskappe
Papers worth reading about teaching in the Faculty of Health Sciences

Aspegren, K. (1999). “BEME Guide No 2: Teaching and Learning Communication Skills in Medicine- a review with quality grading articles.” Medical Teacher 21(6): 563-570.

Abstract: A literature search for articles concerning communication skills teaching and learning in medicine was done. The search yielded 180 pertinent articles which were quality guided into the three categories of high, medium and low quality, using established criteria. Only those of high and medium quality were used for the review, which thus is based on 31 randomized studies, 38 open effect studies and 14 descriptive studies. Communication skills can be taught in courses, are learnt, but are easily forgotten if not maintained by practice. The most effective point in time to learn these at medical school is probably during the clinical clerkships, but there is no study that has specifically addressed this question. After a short period of training, doctors can be effective as teachers. The teaching method should be experiential as it has been shown conclusively that instructional methods do not give the desired results. The contents of communication skills courses should primarily be problem defining. All students should have communication skills training since those with the lowest pre-course scores gain the most from such courses. Men are slower learners of communication skills than women, which should be taken into account by course organizers. As there is only one really long-term follow up into the residency phase of communication skills training at medical school, those who have done randomized studies in the field should if possible carry out further follow-up studies.

Bethune, C. and J. B. Brown (2007). “Residents’ Use of Case-based Reflection Exercises.” Canadian Family Physician 53: 470-476.

Abstract: Objective: Qualitative exploration of the experience of family practice residents in using semi-structured case-based reflection exercises as a learning medium. Design: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting: Memorial University’s Family Medicine Residency Program in St John’s, Newfoundland. Participants: Graduates of the residency program who had taken part in a pilot project that involved completion of case-based reflection exercises as a medium for enhancing learning. Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with graduates who had used the reflection exercises during their postgraduate training. All participants were in active practice. All of the audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis continued until saturation was reached. Main Findings: Eight interviews were conducted that included 5 women and 3 men. Three themes emerged from the data analysis: effect on the learning process, effect on the patient-doctor relationship, and effect on the learner. Conclusion: The experience of using the reflection exercises appeared to affect how family practice residents learned. Three major themes emerged: the reflection exercises as a continuing education process offered participants a strategy for future learning in practice; the exercises offered a different perspective on the patient-doctor interaction that had doctors looking for clues to deeper meaning; and the exercises engaged the learners in a reflective process that revealed qualities about themselves that gave them personal insight. These reflective strategies have relevance for all physicians in their attempts to incorporate new knowledge and understanding into their practices. Similar dimensions are articulated in the educational literature, and this study supports the usefulness of case-based reflection as a catalyst in the education of family physicians.

Bezuidenhout, J., E. Wasserman, et al. (2006). “Clinical rotation in pathology: description of a case based approach.” Journal of Clinical Pathology 59: 355-359.

 Abstract: Background: The implementation of a system based, integrated curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences of Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, resulted in less contact time for the pathology disciplines during theoretical modules, while a weekly rotation in pathology was introduced during clinical training in the fourth and fifth years. Objective: To describe a problem based approach for this rotation. Methods: Students are presented with a clinical “paper” case daily, integrating as many of the pathology disciplines as possible to demonstrate the interdependence of the various disciplines. They receive chemical pathology tutorials, visit the various laboratories, and receive practical training in fine needle aspiration biopsy. On the final day, the case studies are assessed and discussed. Results: Most students appreciated all activities. This rotation enhanced student interactivity and autonomy and guaranteed immediate feedback. On evaluation of the rotation it was found that the students enjoyed the rotation, learnt something new, and realized the value of group work. Conclusions: This innovation integrates pathology with clinical practice and illustrates the use of laboratory medicine in the management of common diseases seen in this country. Students appreciate learning practical skills and having to request special investigations under a pathologist’s supervision changes their approach to pathology requests. Familiarity with the pathology environment empowers the student to use pathology with greater ease. A bank of case studies that can be expanded to include all medical disciplines will facilitate the application of a problem based approach and enhance communication between the basic science disciplines and the clinical and pathology disciplines.

Blewett, E., L and J. Kisamore, L (2009). “Evaluation of an Interactive, Case-based Review Session in Teaching Medical Microbiology.” MBC Medial Education 9(56): 1-9.

Abstract: Background: Oklahoma State University-Center for Health Sciences (OSU-CHS) has replaced its microbiology wet laboratory with a variety of tutorials including a case-based interactive session called Microbial Jeopardy!. The question remains whether the time spent by students and faculty in the interactive case-based tutorial is worthwhile? This study was designed to address this question by analyzing both student performance data and assessing students’ perceptions regarding the tutorial. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the current study. Part One of the study involved assessing student performance using archival records of seven case-based exam questions used in the 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 OSU-CHS Medical Microbiology course. Two sample t-tests for proportions were used to test for significant differences related to tutorial usage. Part Two used both quantitative and qualitative means to assess student’s perceptions of the Microbial Jeopardy! session. First, a retrospective survey was administered to students who were enrolled in Medical Microbiology in 2006 or 2007. Second, responses to open-ended items from the 2008 course evaluations were reviewed for comments regarding the Microbial Jeopardy! session. Results: Both student performance and student perception data support continued use of the tutorials. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that students like and learn from the interactive, case-based session. Conclusion: The case-based tutorial appears to improve student performance on case-based exam questions. Additionally, students perceived the tutorial as helpful in preparing for exam questions and reviewing the course material. The time commitment for use of the case-based tutorial appears to be justified.

Brouwer, I. G. (2005). “Training and development needs of medical practitioners involved in the medico-legal examination of survivors of sexual assault.” SAMJ 95(11): 837-838.

Abstract: No abstract

Conradie, H., S. Moosa, et al. (2005). “The Flemish model of training and supervision.” SA Family Practice 47(10): 10-13.

Abstract: No abstract

de Villiers, M., G. Bresnick, et al. (2003). “The value of small group learning: an evaluation of an innovative CPD programme for primary care medical practitioners.” Medical Education 37: 815-821.

Abstract: Introduction: A ‘competence’ model of CPD using facilitated small groups covering a range of clinical topics is an alternative model to lecture-based CPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new small group CPD programme and to determine whether the anticipated improvements in the quality of learning were realized. Method: A nominal group technique (NGT) was used to compile two questionnaires for participants and facilitators, respectively, seeking quantitative and qualitative information. The NGT is an effective tool and particularly useful in developing questionnaires to evaluate an educational intervention. Results: The results of the participants’ survey indicated broad agreement with the NGT responses. For small group participants personal time constraints was the main reason given for not attending. 91% of the respondents indicated that the small group programme improved their knowledge, 73% indicated improvement in their patient care and 61% that their clinical skills had improved. Learning practical skills and the ability to identify and focus on specific learning needs of participants were strengths of the small groups. Participants valued the ability to deal with one theme in-depth over a number of weeks rather than many topics superficially in didactic lectures. Conclusion: The introduction of the small group CPD enabled an important shift from an update to a competence model of CPD, which has been shown to be more likely to lead to useful change in clinical practice. This approach to CPD should be encouraged. The main challenge for future research in this area is to assess the impact on clinical practice and health outcomes.

du Plessis, V. and S. Andronikou (2007). “Is selection for a registrar post in South Africa defined by a preconceived social profile or are candidates selected on academic credentials and work experience.” SA Journal of Radiology 11(2): 18-23.

Abstract: A current trend towards specialization exists amongst medical graduates worldwide. Available registrar positions are therefore limited and there is often strong competition for posts. South Africa has a unique political history, and as a result there are government directives promoting equal opportunities in order to correct the inequalities of the past. In other countries, race is considered to be an unimportant factor in residency selection, and registrars are chosen predominantly on merit. In this context, an anonymous survey was conducted amongst registrars in Radiology to determine whether selection for a registrar post in South Africa is defined by a preconceived social profile or whether candidates are selected on academic credentials and work experience. Our results showed that academic credentials and work experience are key criteria for the selection of registrars in South Africa. Gender equality is achieved in medical specialist training departments, but a marked racial misrepresentation exists despite current employment policies. The explanation for this finding warrants further study.

Haidet, P. (2007). “Jazz and the ‘Art’ of Medicine: Improvisation in the Medical Encounter.” Annals of Family Medicine 5(2): 164-160.

Abstract: Improvisation is an important aspect of patient-physician communication. It is also a defining feature of jazz music performance. This essay uses examples from jazz to illustrate principles of improvisation that relate to an individual communication act (i.e., building space into one’s communication), a physician’s communicative style (ie, developing one’s voice), and the communicative process of the medical encounter (i.e., achieving ensemble). At all 3 levels, the traditions of jazz improvisation can inform efforts to research and teach medical interviewing by fostering a contextualized view of patient-physician communication.

Jason, H. (2007). “Becoming a truly helpful teacher: considerably more challenging, and potentially more fun, than merely doing business as usual.” Advances in Physiology Education 31: 312-317.

Abstract: Few medical faculty members are adequately prepared for their instructional responsibilities. Our educational traditions were established before we had research-based understandings of the teaching-learning process and before brain research began informing our understandings of how humans achieve lasting learning. Yet, there are several advantages you may have. If your expertise is at one of the frontiers of human biology, your teaching can be inherently fascinating to aspiring health professionals. If your work has implications for human health, you have another potential basis for engaging future clinicians. And, thanks to Claude Bernard’s influence, you likely are “process oriented,” a necessary mindset for being an effective teacher. There are also challenges you may face. Your medical students will mostly become clinicians. Unless you can help them see connections between your offerings and their future work, you may not capture and sustain their interest. To be effective, teachers, like clinicians, need to be interactive, make on-the-spot decisions, and be “emotional literate.” If you aren’t comfortable with these demands, you may have work to do toward becoming a truly helpful teacher. Program changes may be needed. Might your program need to change 1) from being adversarial and controlling to being supportive and trust based or 2) from mainly dispensing information to mainly asking and inviting questions? In conclusion, making changes toward becoming a truly helpful teacher can bring benefits to your students while increasing your sense of satisfaction and fulfillment as a teacher. If you choose to change, be gentle with yourself, as you should be when expecting your students to make important changes.

Jeffree, R. L. and R. M. Clarke (2010). “Ten tips for teaching in the Theatre tearoom: Shifting the focus from Teaching to Learning ” World Journal of Surgery 34(11): 2518-2513.

Abstract: Educational encounters between surgeons and trainees are often brief, spontaneous, opportunistic events. In spite of their vast teaching experience, very few surgeons have had educational training that enables them to optimize such opportunities. This article reviews the literature on medical education and adult learning, and makes practical suggestions about how surgeons can best help trainees to learn. The most important ideas, such as creating a supportive learning environment, actively engaging the learner, and providing constructive feedback, are relevant to any teaching and learning, but are particularly applicable to informal, on-the-job educational encounters such as teaching in the theatre tearoom.

Kenny, A. (2002). “Online learning: enhancing nurse education?” Journal of Advanced Nursing 38(2): 127-135.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of nursing students with `online’ learning. Background: The need to integrate information technology into nursing education has been recognized and well documented. In spite of this, information technology remains a neglected subject in many nursing programmes. Strategies have been considered for increasing the integration of information technology in nursing education. One of the key issues identified is the need for research into the factors that contribute to optimal learning with information technology, specifically the need to explore issues that contribute to student frustration and satisfaction with learning. Within Australia, the incorporation of information technology as a core subject in nursing education is still relatively new. This article describes how one university used `online’ learning to expose students to conceptual and experiential opportunities that enabled them to develop skills in the management of information technology. Methods: Twenty-one students participated in this qualitative study. Individual interviews were used to develop insights into student perceptions. Thematic analysis enabled refined themes to emerge. These themes formed the basis of focus group discussions. Focus groups were used to enhance and validate the information from one-to-one interviews by using group dynamics to add experiential richness to the data. Findings: Four major themes emerged: computer confidence, flexibility, active learning and practicalities of teaching. Conclusions: The integration of information technology into nursing education requires a dramatic change in thinking. The `learning curve’ is steep for both student and educator and there are many issues that need to be considered. This research does not aim to provide solutions to the issues highlighted but rather offers recommendations for enhancing the teaching and learning experience.

Kingsbury, M. P. and J. S. Lymn (2008). “Problem-based learning and larger student groups: mutually exclusive or compatible concepts – a pilot study.” BMC Medical Education 8(35): 1-10.

Abstract: Background: Problem-based learning is recognized as promoting integration of knowledge and fostering a deeper approach to life-long learning, but is associated with significant resource implications. In order to encourage second year undergraduate medical students to integrate their pharmacological knowledge in a professionally relevant clinical context, with limited staff resources, we developed a novel clustered PBL approach. This paper utilizes preliminary data from both the facilitator and student viewpoint to determine whether the use of this novel methodology is feasible with large groups of students. Methods: Students were divided into 16 groups (20–21 students/group) and were allocated a PBL facilitator. Each group was then divided into seven subgroups, or clusters, of 2 or 3 students with each cluster being allocated a specific case. Each cluster was then provided with more detailed clinical information and studied an individual and distinct case-study. An electronic questionnaire was used to evaluate both student and facilitator perception of this clustered PBL format, with each being asked to rate the content, structure, facilitator effectiveness, and their personal view of the wider learning experience. Results: Despite initial misgivings, facilitators managed this more complex clustered PBL methodology effectively within the time restraints and reported that they enjoyed the process. They felt that the cases effectively illustrated medical concepts and fitted and reinforced the students’ pharmacological knowledge, but were less convinced that the scenario motivated students to use additional resources or stimulated their interest in pharmacology. Student feedback was broadly similar to that of the facilitators; although they were more positive about the scenario stimulating the use of additional resources and an interest in pharmacology. Conclusion: This clustered PBL methodology can be successfully used with larger groups of students. The key to success lies with challenging and well situated clinically relevant cases together with enthusiastic facilitators. Facilitator enjoyment of the PBL process may be related to adequate training and previous PBL experience, rather than academic background. The smaller number of facilitators required using this clustered PBL approach allows for facilitators with ‘a belief in the philosophy of PBL’ to volunteer which would again impact on the success.

Marshall, R., N. Cartwright, et al. (2004). “Teaching and learning pathology: a critical review of the English Literature.” Medical Education 38(3): 302-313.

Abstract: Aim: There are few publications summarizing the main issues concerning pathology teaching and learning within undergraduate medical degrees. This article examines the themes that have emerged from the literature over the last 2 decades. Method: A literature search was performed using PubMed, which identified 86 relevant papers in the English language. Results: The themes discussed in the literature included the timing and duration of pathology courses, the appropriate pathology teacher for medical students, the teaching strategies used for pathology, and the methods used to assess learning. Discussion: With the gradual increase of integrated medical curricula, it is important for pathology teachers to engage in the change process and help to shape the new-style courses. One of the positive aspects of change is that it can provide an opportunity to rethink current practice. It is hoped that this paper might stimulate discussion about how pathology is taught and learnt, leading to further developments in this area.

Marson, S. N. (1982). “Ward sister- teacher or facilitator? An investigation into the behavioral characteristics of effective ward teachers.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 7: 347-357.

Abstract: The ward sister role is increasingly coming under study. This paper summarizes research into leaming in the ward environment. The study being one of several on a similar theme, to have been published in the past 2 years. The research concentrated in particular on the behavioral characteristics of trained nurses perceived as good teachers. Attitudes and perceptions of teaching and learning were investigated by interviewing trained and trainee nurses. The data concerning good teachers collected at interviews were developed into a questionnaire and the results factor analyzed. In the third phase of the study trained nurse-trainee verbal communications were observed and analyzed to determine any relationship between verbal behaviors and effective teaching. The findings of the study led to the conclusion that on the job teaching of nurses is a complex global act in which the role model presented to the leamer has a powerful influence while it could not be said conclusively that a link between effective teaching and verbal behaviour was identified, a trend towards a more participative mode of communication was noted in two identified good teachers.

Mash, B. (2007). “Assessing clinical skills – standard setting in the objective structured clinical exam.” SA Family Practice 49(3): 5-7.

 Mash, B. and I. Meulenberg-Buskens (2001). “”Holding it lightly” the co-operative inquiry group: a method for developing educational materials ” Medical Education 35: 1108-1114.

Abstract: Setting: The purpose of this research was to adapt the World Health Organization’s educational programme Mental Disorders in Primary Care for South African general practitioners. Aim: This paper describes how to organize and facilitate a co-operative inquiry group as a form of participatory action research aimed at developing or adapting educational materials. Specific quality criteria for this type of action research are defined. The experience of our own co-operative inquiry and the lessons learnt are discussed. Conclusion: In the field of medical education participatory action research methodology is relatively new. This article shows how the co-operative inquiry group can be used effectively to develop educational materials. It is intended to encourage and support others in using similar methods of action research in their own settings.

Mixer, S. J. (2008). “Use of the Culture Care Theory and Ethnonursing Method to discover how Nursing Faculty Teach Culture Care.” Contemporary Nurse 28(1-2): 23-36.

Abstract: As the world becomes increasingly multicultural, transcultural nursing education is critical to ensuring a culturally competent workforce. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature and results of an ethnonursing pilot study using the Culture Care Theory (CCT) to discover how nursing faculty teach culture care. The literature revealed that despite 50 years of transcultural nursing knowledge development through theory, research and practice, there remains a lack of formal, integrated culture education in nursing. The importance of faculty providing generic and professional care to nursing students and using an organizing framework to teach culture care was discovered. Additionally, care was essential for faculty health and well-being to enable faculty to teach culture care. This unique use of the theory and method demonstrates its usefulness in discovering and describing the complex nature of teaching culture care. Larger scale studies are predicted to further substantiate the CCT, building the discipline of nursing.

Moodley, K. (2007). “Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post-apartheid South Africa 2003-2006 ” J Med Ethics 33: 673-677.

Abstract: The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country.

Nehring, V. (1990). “Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory: a replication study of the characteristics of ‘best’ and ‘worst’ clinical teachers as perceived by nursing faculty and students.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 15: 934-940.

Abstract: This study determined the characteristics of ‘best’ and ‘worst’ clinical teachers as perceived by 63 baccalaureate nursing faculty and 121 BSN students in Ohio It is a replication of the 1987 study by Knox & Mogan The Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) they developed is a 48-item Likert scale checklist which describes discrete teacher characteristics clustered into five subscales or categories teaching ability, nursing competence, personality traits, interpersonal relationship and evaluation Respondents are asked to rate their ‘best’ clinical teacher using the NCTEI and then their ‘worst’ clinical teacher Results show that both faculty and students agree, in both Knox & Mogan’s sample and this sample, that the ‘best’ clinical teachers are good role models, enjoy nursing, enjoy teaching and demonstrate clinical skills and judgment The ‘worst’ clinical teachers are not good role models The most critical distinguishing characteristics between the ‘best’ and the ‘worst’ clinical teachers are being a good role model and encouraging mutual respect.

Peets, A. D., S. Coderre, et al. (2009). “Involvement in teaching improves learning in medical students: a randomized cross-over study.” BMC Medial Education.

Abstract: Background: Peer-assisted learning has many purported benefits including preparing students as educators, improving communication skills and reducing faculty teaching burden. But comparatively little is known about the effects of teaching on learning outcomes of peer educators in medical education. Methods: One hundred and thirty-five first year medical students were randomly allocated to 11 small groups for the Gastroenterology/Hematology Course at the University of Calgary. For each of 22 sessions, two students were randomly selected from each group to be peer educators. Students were surveyed to estimate time spent preparing as peer educator versus group member. Students completed an end-of-course 94 question multiple choice exam. A paired t-test was used to compare performance on clinical presentations for which students were peer educators to those for which they were not. Results: Preparation time increased from a mean (SD) of 36 (33) minutes baseline to 99 (60) minutes when peer educators (Cohen’s d = 1.3; p < 0.001). The mean score (SD) for clinical presentations in which students were peer educators was 80.7% (11.8) compared to77.6% (6.9) for those which they were not (d = 0.33; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that involvement in teaching small group sessions improves medical students’ knowledge acquisition and retention.

Rubinstein, J., A. Dhoble, et al. (2009). “Puzzle-based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Electrocardiogram Interpretation for Medical Students – A Pilot Study.” BMC Medial Education – Research Article 9(4): 1-7.

Abstract: Background: Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents’ and physicians’ EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods: This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results: The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Conclusion: Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

Smordal, O. and J. Gregory (2003). “Personal Digital Assistants in Medical Education and Practice.” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 19: 320-329.

Abstract: This paper reports on a current project, KNOWMOBILE, that explores how wireless and mobile technologies, in this case how Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) may be useful in medical education and clinical practice, particularly to access net-based information. KNOWMOBILE is a research collaboration involving academic and industrial partners which aims to support Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and the integration of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in medical education reform in Norway. What does ‘just-in-time’ access to information mean in clinical settings? How can health professionals be helped with access to the most up-to-date medical information? From a preliminary analysis of the problems of Personal Digital Assistants in use — and nonuse — problems regarding information and communication infrastructure discussed that require work from a social historical interpretation of ‘infrastructures’ in order to enhance design perspectives and directions for future research. It is concluded that the PDAs should not be regarded as Personal Digital Assistants, but rather as gateways in complicated webs of interdependent technical and social networks.

Sutkin, G., H. Burley, et al. (2008). “Characteristics of Good Clinical Educators from Medical Student’s Perspectives: A Quality Inquiry using a Web-based Survey System.” International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics 3(2): 70-86.

Abstract: Medical educators have a unique role in teaching students how to save lives and give comfort during illness. This article reports a qualitative inquiry into medical students’ perspectives on the key qualities which differentiate excellent and poor clinical teachers, using a Web-based questionnaire with a purposeful sample of third- and fourth-year medical students. Thirty-seven medical students responded with 465 characteristics and supportive anecdotes. All participants’ responses were analyzed through reviewing, coding, member checking, recoding and content analysis, which yielded 12 codes. Responses from 5 randomly chosen participants were recorded by two authors with an inter-rater reliability coefficient of 0.72, implying agreement. Finally, 3 larger categories emerged from the data: Content Competence, Teaching Mechanics, and Teaching Dynamics. We incorporate these codes into a diagrammatic model of a good clinical teacher, discuss the relationships and interactions between the codes and categories, and suggest further areas of research.

 Trelease, R., B. (2008). “Diffusion of innovations: Smart phones and wireless anatomy learning resources.” Anatomical Sciences Education 1(6, November/ December 2008): 233-239.

Abstract: The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular attention has been directed to the anticipated integration of PDA functions into popular cellular telephones. However, limited distribution of early ‘‘Smartphone’’ (e.g., Palm, Treo and Blackberry) has provided few potential users for anatomical learning resources. In contrast, iPod media players have been self-adopted by millions of students, and ‘‘podcasting’’ has become a popular medium for distributing educational media content. The recently introduced Apple iPhone has combined Smartphone and higher resolution media player capabilities. The author successfully tested the iPhone and the ‘‘work alike’’ iPod touch wireless media player with text-based ‘‘flashcard’’ resources, existing PDF educational documents, 3D clinical imaging data, lecture ‘‘podcasts,’’ and clinical procedure video. These touch-interfaced, mobile computing devices represent just the first of a new generation providing practical, scalable wireless Web access with enhanced Multimedia capabilities. With widespread student self-adoption of such new personal technology, educators can look forward to increasing portability of well-designed, multiplatform ‘‘learn anywhere’’ resources.

Van Deventer, C., H. H. Conradie, et al. (2005). “The learning plan as a reflective tool for trainers of family medicine registrars.” SA Family Practice 47(10): 17-21.

Abstract: No abstract

Wikstrom, B. M. (2001). “Works of Art: A Complement to Theoretical Knowledge when teaching nursing care.” Journal of Clinical Nursing 10: 25-32.

Abstract: Visual art dialogues were used in student nurses’ education as a teaching and learning complement to theoretical knowledge of nursing care. * An intervention group as well as a control group discussed what was characteristic of good nursing care. The control group was used to control for the effects of visual art dialogues in the intervention group. * The study was undertaken at two university colleges of health sciences in Sweden. Data were collected from student nurses (nˆ267) during their first year of study. * The Wheel Questionnaire was used in the intervention group and control group. It measured three aspects of student nurses’ perception of nursing situations: structure, the extent of emotional involvement, and motivation. * The results showed statistical differences (one way ANOVA) between the intervention group in which visual art dialogues were implemented and the control group.* Students in the intervention group, compared to the control group, were more structured, motivated and emotionally balanced when they expressed the elements most typical of good nursing care. They showed personal readiness in caring situations.

Wong, G., T. Greenhalgh, et al. (2010). “Internet-based medical education: a realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances.” BMC Medical Education 10(12).

Abstract: Background: Educational courses for doctors and medical students are increasingly offered via the Internet. Despite much research, course developers remain unsure about what (if anything) to offer online and how. Prospective learners lack evidence-based guidance on how to choose between the options on offer. We aimed to produce theory driven criteria to guide the development and evaluation of Internet-based medical courses. Methods: Realist review – a qualitative systematic review method whose goal is to identify and explain the interaction between context, mechanism and outcome. We searched 15 electronic databases and references of included articles, seeking to identify theoretical models of how the Internet might support learning from empirical studies which (a) used the Internet to support learning, (b) involved doctors or medical students; and (c) reported a formal evaluation. All study designs and outcomes were considered. Using immersion and interpretation, we tested theories by considering how well they explained the different outcomes achieved in different educational contexts. Results: 249 papers met our inclusion criteria. We identified two main theories of the course-in-context that explained variation in learners’ satisfaction and outcomes: Davis’s Technology Acceptance Model and Laurillard’s model of interactive dialogue. Learners were more likely to accept a course if it offered a perceived advantage over available non-Internet alternatives, was easy to use technically, and compatible with their values and norms. ‘Interactivity’ led to effective learning only if learners were able to enter into a dialogue – with a tutor, fellow students or virtual tutorials – and gain formative feedback. Conclusions: Different modes of course delivery suit different learners in different contexts. When designing or choosing an Internet-based course, attention must be given to the fit between its technical attributes and learners’ needs and priorities; and to ways of providing meaningful interaction. We offer a preliminary set of questions to aid course developers and learners consider these issues.

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